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Jensvold, M.L., Dombrausky, K., & Collins, E. (2023). Sign language studies with chimpanzees in sanctuary. Animals. 13(22): 3486.


Jensvold, M. L. (2022). A Preliminary Assessment of Compassion Fatigue in Chimpanzee Caregivers. Animals, 12(24), 3506.


Zager, L. N., & Jensvold, M. L. A. (2021). Signs and docents in zoo visitor education: Using affinitive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) behaviors. Animal Behavior and Cognition, 8(4), 589-600.


Jensvold, M.L. (2020).  Conversations with Chimpanzees:  What They’ve Told Me. In D. Rosen (Ed.), The chimpanzee chronicles (p. 235-250). Santa Fe, NM: Wild Soul Press.


Casti, A., Martinson J., & Jensvold, M.L. (2019). Patterns in Chimpanzee Marking and Drawing. In M.L. Jensvold (Ed.) Chimpanzee behavior: Recent understandings from captivity and the forest (p. 95-140). New York: Nova Science Publisher.

Jensvold, M.L., & Dombrausky, K. (2019). Sign Language in Chimpanzees Across Environments. In M.L. Jensvold (Ed.) Chimpanzee behavior: Recent understandings from captivity and the forest (p. 141-174). New York: Nova Science Publisher.

Jensvold, M.L. (2019). Relationships Between Caregivers and Chimpanzee Sanctuary Residents. In M.L. Jensvold (Ed.) Chimpanzee behavior: Recent understandings from captivity and the forest (p. 175-198). New York: Nova Science Publisher.


Jensvold, Mary Lee (2018). Lessons from chimpanzee sign language studiesAnimal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling, 2(20), 17.


Jensvold, M.L. (2017). Ape Language. A. Fuentes (Ed.). International Encyclopedia of Primatology. Wiley.


Mulcahy, J. B., & Jensvold, M. L. (2015). Toward a common goal: Opportunities for collaboration between primate sanctuaries and universities. American Journal of Primatology, 77, 55-56.

Egan, T.E. & Jensvold, M.L. (2015).  Pretend Play in Signing Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).  In T. Wagner, (Ed.), Animal communication and cognition:  Principles, evolution, and development (pp. 57-85).  New York:  Nova.


Jensvold, M.L., Wilding, L., Schulze, S.M. (2014).  Signs of Communication in Chimpanzees.  In G. Witzany (Ed.), Biocommunication of animals (pp. 7-19).  Dordrecht: Springer.

Jensvold, M.L. (2014).  Experimental Conversations:  Sign Language Studies with Chimpanzees.  In N. Gontier & O. Pombo (Eds.), The evolution of social communication in primates – a multidisciplinary approach (pp. 63-82).  Switzerland: Springer.  (peer reviewed)


Leeds, C.A., Jensvold, M.L. (2013).  The communicative functions of five signing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Pragmatics & Cognition.


Leitten, L., Jensvold, M.L., Fouts, R., & Wallin, J. (2012). Contingency in requests of signing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Interaction Studies.

McCarthy, M.S., Jensvold, M.L., & Fouts, D.H. (2012). Use of gesture sequences in captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) play. Animal Cognition.


Campion, T.L., Jensvold, M.L., & Larsen, G. (2011). Use of gesture sequences in free-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology, 73(supplement 1), 97.


Jensvold, M.L., Buckner, J., & Stadtner, G. (2010). Caregiver-chimpanzee interactions with species-specific behaviors. Interaction Studies, Special Issue of Human-Animal Interactions, 11, 396-409.


Jensvold, M.L. (2009). Animals and language. In K. Malmkjaer (Ed.), Linguistics encyclopedia (pp. 9-15). Routledge: London.


Jensvold, M.L. (2008). Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) responses to caregiver use of chimpanzee behaviors. Zoo Biology, 27, 345-359.

Jensvold, M.L., & Fouts, R.S. (2008). Learning from chimpanzees: Internships at the Chimpanzee & Human Communication Institute. In R. L. Miller, R. F. Rycek, E. Balcetis, S. T. Barney, B. C. Beins, S. R. Burns, R. Smith, & M. E. Ware (Eds.), Developing, promoting, & sustaining the undergraduate research experience in psychology (pp. 172-176). Retrieved from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology Web site:


Jensvold, M.L. (2007). Promoting positive interactions between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and caregivers. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 46, 1-4.

Jensvold, M.L. (2007). Species-specific behaviors. Animal Welfare Institute Quarterly, 56(2), 20.

Jensvold, M.L., & Gardner, R.A. (2007). Conversational use of sign language by cross-fostered chimpanzees. In F.R. Lewis (Ed.), Focus on non-verbal communication research (pp. 237-279). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.


Jensvold, M.L., & Sheeran, L.S. (2006). Ape cognition. In H. J. Birx (Ed.), Encyclopedia of anthropology (pp. 207-212). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Jensvold, M.L., Field, A., Cranford, J., Fouts, R.S., & Fouts, D.H. (2005). Incidence of wounding within a group of five signing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 44, 5-7.


Fouts, R., Jensvold, M.L. & Fouts, D. (2004). Talking chimpanzees. In M. Bekoff (Ed.) Encyclopedia of animal behavior (pp. 324-327). Westport, CN: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Jensvold, M. L., Fouts, R. S., & Fouts, D. H. (2004). Assessment of species behaviors in captive chimpanzees. Animal Welfare, 13, S243.

Fouts, R. S. & Fouts, D. H. (2004). Primate language. In R. Gregory (Ed.), The Oxford companion to the mind (pp. 744-747) Oxford, England: Oxford University Press,

Fouts, R. (2004). Apes, Darwinian continuity and the law. Animal Law, 10, 99-124.


Derschowitz, A., Favre, D., Fouts, R., Goodall, J., Sunstein, C., Wise, S., Waldau, P. & Wrangham, R. (2003). The evolving legal status of chimpanzees. Animal Law, 9, 1-95.

Fouts, R.S., Fouts, D.H. & Waters, G. (2003) Wrist-walking: A candidate for aculturally transmitted communicative gesture. International Primatological Society Bulletin, 29(2), 9.

Jensvold, M.L., Fouts, R.S., & Fouts, D.H. (2003). Assessment of species typical behaviors in captive chimpanzees. Friends of Washoe, 24, 8-12.

Fouts, R. & Fouts, D. (2003) Chimpanzees. In P. Waldau and D. Cress (Eds.) The great ape project census: Recognition for the uncounted (pp. 31-34). Portand, OR: GAP Books.

Fouts, R. and Waters, G. (2003) Unbalanced human apes and syntax. Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 26. 221-222. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X03370062


Fouts, R. S., Fouts, D. H. and Waters, G. (2002). The ethics and efficacy of biomedical research in chimpanzees with special regard to HIV research. In A. Fuentes and L. Wolfe (Eds.). Primates face to face: Conservation implications of human-nonhuman primate interconnections (pp. 45-60). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Fouts, R.S. & Jensvold, M.L.A. (2002). Armchair delusions v. empirical realities: A neurological model for the continuity of ape and human languaging. In M. Goodman & A. A. Moffat (eds.) Probing human origins (pp. 87-101). Cambridge, MA: The American Association for the Arts and Science Press.

Fouts, R.S., Jensvold, M.L.A. & Fouts, D.H. (2002). Chimpanzee signing: Darwinian realities and Cartesian delusions. In M. Bekoff, C. Allen & G. Burghardt (Eds.) The cognitive animal: Empirical and theoretical perspectives in animal cognition (pp. 285-291). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Fouts, R.S. & Waters, G. (2002). Continuity, ethology, and Stokoe: How to build a better language model. In D. Armstrong, M. Karchmer and J. Vickery Van Cleve (Eds). The study of signed languages: Essays in honor of William C. Stokoe (pp. 100-117). Washington D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.

Hayashida, C., Jensvold, M.L., Grandia, A., Blake, S., Eburn, A., Jung, C., Parker, S., & Fouts, R. (2002). Social hierarchy of five chimpanzees. Friends of Washoe, 23, 7-13.

Jaffe, S., Jensvold, M. L., and Fouts, D. (2002) Chimpanzee to Chimpanzee Signed Interactions. In V. Landau (Ed.), ChimpanZoo Conference Proceedings: The Chimpanzee Community (pp. 67-75). Tucson,AZ: ChimpanZoo.

Waters, G. & Fouts, R.S. (2002). Sympathetic mouth movements accompanying fine motor movements in five captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with implications toward the evolution of language. Neurological Research, 24, 174-180.


Fouts, R. S. (2001). Darwinian reflections on our fellow apes. In B. Beck, T. Stoinski, M. Hutchins, T. Maple, B. Norton, A. Rowan, E. Stevens & A. Arluke (Eds.) Great apes and humans: The ethics of coexistence (pp. 191-211). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Jensvold, M. L., Sanz, C., Fouts, R. S., & Fouts, D. H. (2001) Effect of enclosure size and complexity of the behaviors of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare, 4(1), 53-69.

Fouts, R.S. & Waters, G. (2001). Chimpanzee sign language and Darwinian continuity: Evidence for a neurology continuity of language. Neurological Research, 23, 787-794.

Jensvold, M.L., Fouts, D.H., & Fouts, R.S. (2001). Species typical use of objects in captive chimpanzees. Friends of Washoe Newsletter, 22(3), 6-9.

Martinson, J., Jensvold, M.L., Cohen, N., Pieracci, M., Tata, M.J., & Fouts, R.S. (2001). An educational program’s effect on attitudes toward chimpanzees. Friends of Washoe, 23, 12-14.


McConkey, E., Fouts, R., Goodman, M., Nelson, D., Penny, D., Ruvolo, M., Sikela, J., Stewart, C-B., Varki, A. & Wise, S. (2000). Proposal for a human genome evolution project. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 15(1), 1-4.

Fouts, R. S. (2000). My best friend is a chimp. Psychology Today, 32(4), 68-73.

Fouts, D. H. & Fouts, R. S. (2000) Our emotional kin. In M. Bekoff (Ed.) The smile of a dolphin (pp. 204-207). New York: Discovery Books/ Random House.

Jensvold, M.L.A. (2000). A review of Apes, Language, and the Human Mind. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4, 277-281.

Jensvold, M.L.A., & Gardner, R.A. (2000). Interactive use of sign language by cross-fostered chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 114, 335-346.


Fouts, R. S. & Fouts, D. H. (1999). My brother’s keeper. In M. Rowe (Ed.) The way of compassion (pp. 192-194). New York: Stealth Technologies,

Sanz, C., Blicher, A., Dalke, K., Gratton-Fabbri, L., McClure-Richards, T., & Fouts, R. (1999). Use of temporary and semi-permanent enrichment objects by five chimpanzees. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 2(1), 1-11.

Fouts, R. S. & Fouts, D. H. (1999). Chimpanzee sign language research. In P. Dolhinow & A. Fuentes (Eds.) The nonhuman primates (pp. 252-256) Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co.

Prince, A. M., Allan, J., Andrus, L., Brotman, B., Eichberg, J., Fouts, R., Goodall, J., Marx, P., Murthy, K., McGreal, S. & Noon, C. (1999). Virulent HIV strains, chimpanzees, and trial vaccines (letter). Science, 283, 1117-1118.

Fouts, R. S. (1999). Review of Jerry H. Gill’s "If a chimpanzee could talk and other reflections on language acquisition," American Journal of Human Biology, 11, 274-275.

Teacot, S., Jensvold, M. L., & Fouts, R. (1999). Evaluation of an enriched physical environment: space and structure utilization in Pan troglodytes. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Supplement 28 to the Annual Meeting Issue, 264.


Fouts, R. S. (1998). On the psychological well-being of chimpanzees. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 1(1), 65-73.

Fouts, R. S. & Fouts, D. H. (1998). Chimpanzees. In M. Bekoff & C. Meaney (Eds.) Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare (pp. 105-107). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

Cianelli, S. N. & Fouts, R. S. (1998). Chimpanzee to chimpanzee American Sign Language communication during high arousal interactions. Human Evolution, 13, 147-159.


Fouts, R. S. & Mills, S. T. (1997). Next of kin. New York: William Morrow. (Translated into twelve different languages)

Krause, M. A., & Fouts, R. S. (1997). Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) pointing: Hand shapes, accuracy, and the role of eye gaze. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 111, 330-336.


Fouts, R. S. (1995). Science in zoos: Arrogance of knowledge vs. the humility of ignorance. In B. Norton, M. Hutchins, E. Stevens & T. Maple (Eds.) Ethics on the ark: Zoos, animal welfare and wildlife conservation (pp. 277-285). Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Fouts, R. S. (1995). Chimpanzee biomedical experiments: A question of efficacy. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 23(5), 584-591.

Krause, M. A., Bodamer, M. D., & Fouts, R. S. (1995). Communication of object location with the use of directional pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology, 36, (Suppl. 74), 135.


Fouts, R. S., Fouts, D. H., Jensvold, M. L. A. & Bodamer, M. D. (1994). An enriching approach to captive chimpanzee care. In Touch, 1 (1), 1-8.

Fouts, R. S. & Krause, M. (1994). Review of Chimpanzee conservation and public health. International Journal of Primatology, 15(1), 153-155.

Jensvold, M. L .A. & Fouts, R. S. (1994). Behavioral changes in chimpanzees following a move to a large facility. American Journal of Primatology, 33, 318.

Fouts, R. S. (1994). Transmission of a human gestural language in a chimpanzee mother-infant relationship. In R. A.

Gardner, B. T. Gardner, B. Chiarelli & F. X. Plooij (Eds.) The ethological roots of culture (pp. 257-270). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bodamer, M., Fouts, D. H., Fouts, R. S. & Jensvold, M. L. A. (1994). Functional analysis of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) private signing. Human Evolution. 9(4), 281-296.

Fouts, D.H. (1994). The use of remote video recordings to study the use of american sign language by chimpanzees when no humans are present. The ethological roots of culture (pp. 271-285). Dordecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Fouts, R. S. & Fouts, D. H. (1993). Chimpanzees' use of sign language. In P. Singer & P. Cavalieri (Eds.) The Great Ape project (pp.28-41). London: Fourth Estate.1994 also published by St. Martin's Press, New York.

Cohen, M. J., Black, D. N., Fouts, R. S., & Dobbs, F. W. (1993). A critique of neurology experiments at Northwestern University. Perspectives on Medical Research, 4, 22-27.

Fouts, R. S., Fouts, D. H., Beach, K. & Bleggi, B. (Exec. Producers & script). (1993). CHCI Chimposium: Project History, Produced by CWU Auxiliary Services.

Jensvold, M. L. A., & Fouts, R. S. (1993). Imaginary play in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Human Evolution, 8(3), 217-227.


Fouts, R. S. (1991). Dirty bath water, innateness neonates and the dating game. Language and Communication, 11, 41-43.


Fouts, R. S. (1991). Dirty bath water, innateness neonates and the dating game. Language and Communication, 11, 41-43.


Fouts, R. S. (1988). Review of Martin L. Stephens' "Maternal deprivation experiments in Psychology". Animal Agenda, 7, No.4, 49-50.


Fouts, R. S. (1987). Chimpanzee signing and emergent levels. In G. Greenberg & E. Tobach (Eds.), Language, cognition and consciousness: Integrative levels (pp. 57-84). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum & Assoc.

Fouts, R. S. & Fouts, D. H. (1987). Primate language. In R. Gregory (Ed.), The Oxford companion to the mind (631 - 633). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.


Fouts, R. S., Fouts, D. H., & Bodamer, M. (1986). La investigacion sobre lenguaje por senas en chimpances. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia, 18 (no. 2), 299-321.

Fouts, R. S. (1986). Non-human signing. In J. Van Cleve & R. Battison (Eds.) Encyclopedia of deaf people and deafness Vol. 1 (pp. 467-469). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Fouts, R. S. (1986). Cain and Abel revisited. Friends of Washoe Newsletter, 5, 4-5.

Fouts, R. S. (1986). Report on the chimpanzee breeding and research program. Friends of Washoe Newsletter, 6, 3-6.


Fouts, R. S., Fouts, D. H., & Schoenfeld, D. (l984). Sign language conversational interactions between chimpanzees. Sign Language Studies, 42, 1-12.

Beach, K., Fouts, R. S., & Fouts, D. H. (1984). Representational art in chimpanzees. Friends of Washoe Newsletter, Vol. 3- 4, 1-4.


Fouts, R. S. (1983). Conversing with a threatened species: Washoe, the first chimpanzee to acquire a human language. In G. Nilsson (Ed.), The endangered species handbook (pp. 142-144). Washington, D. C.: The Animal Welfare Institute

Fouts, R. S. (1983). Chimpanzee language and elephant tails. In H. Wilder & J. de Luce (Eds.), Language in primates (pp. 63-75). New York: Springer Verlag.

Kimball, G., Kanak, N. J., & Fouts, R. S. (1983). The effect of the availability of linguistic labels on concurrent discrimination learning by an ASL responding chimpanzee. In R. L. Mellgren (Ed.), Animal cognition and behavior (pp. 445-571). New York: North Holland Press.


Gorcyca, D., Garner, P. H., & Fouts, R. S. (1982). Deaf children and chimpanzees: A comparative sociolinguistic investigation. In M. R. Key (Ed.), Nonverbal communication today (pp. 219-231). New York: Mouton Publishers.

Fouts, R. S. (1982). Homo does not cogitate because of bread alone: or "I eat therefore I think?" Response to S. T. Parker and K. R. Gibson. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, p. 283.

O'Sullivan, C. S., Fouts, R. S., Hannum, M., & Schnieder, K. (1982). Chimpanzee conversations: Language, cognition and theory. In S. A. Kuczaj (Ed.), Language development: Language, thought and culture: Vol. 2 (pp. 397-428). Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Fouts, R. S., Hirsch, A., & Fouts, D. H. (1982). Cultural transmission of a human language in a chimpanzee mother/infant relationship. In H. E. Fitzgerald, J. A. Mullins, & P. Gage (Eds.), Psychobiological perspectives: Child nurturance series Vol. III (pp. 159-193). New York: Plenum Press.


Davis, D., Fouts, R. S., & Hannum, M. (1981). The maternal behavior of a home-reared, language using chimpanzee. Primates, 22, 570-573.


O'Neil, C., Stratton, H., Ingersoll, R., & Fouts, R. (1979). Hand preference and conjugate lateral eye movements. Neuropsychologia, 16, 759-762.

Fouts, R. S., Couch, J. B., & O'Neil, C. (1979). Strategies for primate language training. In R. Schiefelbusch & J. H. Hollis (Eds.),Language intervention from ape to child (pp. 295-323). Baltimore: University Park Press.

Fouts, R. S., & O'Neil, C. (1979). Language intervention in ecological and ethological perspective. In J. Button, T. Lovitt, & T. Rowland (Eds.), Communications research in learning disabilities and mental retardation (pp. 249-281). Baltimore: University Park Press.

Fouts, R. S., & Budd, R. L. (1979). Artificial and human language acquisition in the chimpanzee. In D. Hamburg & L. McCown (Eds.), The great apes (pp. 374-392). Meno Park, CA.: The Benjamin Cummings Pub. Co.


Fouts, R. S., Shapiro, G., & O'Neil, C. (1978). Studies of linguistic behavior in apes and children. In P. Siple (Ed.), Understanding language through sign language research (pp. 163-185). New York: Academic Press.

Mellgren, R. L., & Fouts, R. S. (1978). Mentalism and methodology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1 (#4), 385-386.

Fouts, R. S. (1978). Sign language in chimpanzees: Implications of the visual mode and the comparative approach. In F. C. C. Peng (Ed.), Sign language and language acquisition in man and ape: New dimensions in comparative pedolinguistics (pp. 121-136). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

O'Neil, C., Davis, D., Carter, J., & Fouts, R. (1978). Signed communication in Pan troglodytes. Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2, 285-290.


Fouts, R. S. (1977). Lucy grew up chimpanzee. Review of Lucy: Growing up human by M. Temerlin. Contemporary Psychology, 22 (#3), 172-173.

Fouts, R. S., & Rigby, R. (1977). Man-chimpanzee communication. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), How animals communicate (pp. 1034-1054). Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana Univ. Press. [Also published in T. Sebeok & J. Uniker-Sebeok (Eds.), Speaking of apes: A critical anthology of two-way communication with man. New York: Plenum Pub. Co., 1980.]

Fouts, R. S. (1977). Ameslan in Pan. In Geoffrey Bourne (Ed.) Progress in ape research (pp. 117-123). New York: Academic Press.


Fouts, R. S. (1976). A comparison of sign language projects and implications for language origins. In S. R. Harnad, H. D. Steklis & J. Lancaster (Eds.), Origins and evolution of language and speech: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (pp. 589-591). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Fouts, R. S., & Mellgren, R. L. (1976). Language, signs and cognition in the chimpanzee. Sign Language Studies, 13, 319-346.

Fulwiler, R. L., & Fouts, R. S. (1976). Acquisition of American Sign Language by a non-communicating autistic child. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 43-51.

Fouts, R. S., Chown, B., & Goodin, L. (1976). Transfer of signed responses in American Sign Language from vocal English stimuli to physical object stimuli by a chimpanzee (Pan). Learning and Motivation, 7, 458-475.

Fouts, R. S. (1976). More on chimpanzees, language and communication. (A response to Georges Mounin). Current Anthropology, 17 (#4), 726.


Fouts, R. S. (1975). The development of human linguistic behaviors in chimpanzees. In R. M. Hutchins & M. J. Adler (Eds.), Great ideas today (pp. 9-24). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.

Fouts, R. S. (1975). More confusion: A rebuttal. In R. M. Hutchins & M. J. Adler (Eds.), Great ideas today (pp. 90-93). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.

Fouts, R. S. & Couch, J. D. (1975). Cultural evolution of a learned language in chimpanzees. In E. Simmel & M. Hahn (Eds.), Communicative behavior and evolution (pp. 131-151). New York: Academic Press.

Fouts, R. S. (1975). Capacities for language in the great apes. In R. H. Tuttle (Ed.), Socioecology and psychology of primates (pp. 371-390). The Hague/Paris: Mouton Publishers.

Fouts, R. S. (1975). Communication with chimpanzees. In I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt & G. Kurth (Eds.), Hominization and behavior (Ger. Ed.: Hominisation und verhalten) (pp. 137-158). Stuttgart: Gustav Fisher Verlag.

Fouts, R. S. (1975). Chimpanzees and sign language: A research report. In L. S. Wrightman & F. H. Sanford (eds.), Psychology: A scientific study or human behavior (p. 371). Monterey, CA.: Brooks Cole Pub. Co.


Fouts, R. S. (1974). Language: Origin, definitions and chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution, 3, 475-482. [Also published in I. Rossi, J. Buettner-Janusch & D. Coppenhover (Eds.), Anthropology full circle. Praeger, 1977.]


Fouts, R. S. (1973). Acquisition and testing of gestural signs in four young chimpanzees. Science, 180, 978-980.

Fouts, R. S. (1973). Report on two-way communication with several chimpanzees. In N. H. Pronko (Ed.), Panorama of psychology, (pp. 380-381). Belmont, California: Brooks Cole Pub. Co.

Mellgren, R. L., Fouts, R. S., & Martin, J. W. (1973). Approach and escape to conspecific odors of reward and nonreward in rats. Animal Learning and Behavior, 1, 129-132.

Fouts, R. S. (1973). Two-way communication with the chimpanzee. In Science year - World book science annual 1974 (pp. 34-49). Chicago: Field Enterprises Educational Corp. [Also published in Annual editions readings in psychology 1976/77. Gilford, Conn.: Duskin Pub. Co., 1976, pp. 118-126; and in Annual editions readings in psychology 1978/79. Gilford, Conn.: Duskin Pub. Co., 1978,


Fouts, R. S. (1972). The use of guidance in teaching sign language to a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 80, 515-522.

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